My Favorite Links
I’m on a mission to use the Internet to accelerate the spread of interesting ideas.
What follows is a collection of my favorite books, blogs, podcasts, and videos. I’ve spent years and years collecting these links and now, I’m excited to share the best of the best with you.
In this collection, I brought together my favorite things on the internet and sprinkled in my own work too. I hope this page will help you spend more time learning and less time searching.
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Society & Philosophy
Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky is one of the most thought-provoking intellectuals alive today. He’s at his best when he’s talking about how the media controls thought. In one interview, a reporter asked him: “Do you really think I’m self-censoring right now?” Chomsky replied: “I’m not saying that you think you’re self-censoring. I’m sure you believe every word you’re saying. But I’m saying that if you believed something different, you wouldn’t be sitting where you’re sitting.” For more, I recommend this explainer, this YouTube interview, or Chomsky’s book on the subject.
Chartism: I can’t get this idea out of my head. Apparently, it goes back to the British male suffrage movement in the mid-19th century and the work of Thomas Carlyle, who was critical of Chartism’s hold over decision-making. Here’s how I interpret the practical implications of the idea: Policymakers fall somewhere on the spectrum of pro-chart and anti-chart. Pro-chartists think that data can explain the world, and the more we have, the better. But anti-chartists think that relentless data accumulation is misguided because it offers false certainty and misses the big picture interpretation. As the saying goes: “More fiction is written in Excel than Word.”
An Intro to Marshall McLuhan: If there’s a recurring theme in my work, it’s that more people should study McLuhan’s ideas. Here’s an excellent podcast introduction from Philosophize This, with a full transcript.
Lewis Mumford: What an under-rated talent. Mumford is the forefather of the media and technology studies movement that gained steam in the mid-20th-century. I’ve been reading his book, Technics and Civilization. The owner of my local Austin bookstore knows my taste, so she also picked Architecture as a Home for Man up for me, which I plan to read afterward.
Shop Class as Soulcraft: One of the best ways to find good things to read is to look for the essays that were so good that they eventually became books. To date, I haven’t seen a list of such essays, but I’ll share it here if I find one. This essay reveals the downsides in the transition from physical labor to knowledge work. Manual trades have lost their honor and the material world has lost its mystique.
Thorstein Velben’s Theory of the Leisure Class (Updated): Written by one of my favorite up-and-coming writers, Rob Henderson (whose entire body of work is worth exploring). This article is an introduction to his theory of “luxury beliefs,” where high-class people adopt beliefs that take a toll on the lower class but don’t cost them anything. To prove his argument, he points to research that shows that the desire for status is a positive feedback loop, where the highest status people are the most likely to want even more status.
Einstein’s Dreams: A splendid collection of short stories from the philosopher-physicist Alan Lightman. All of them are about time, relativity, and physics as if they were the dreams of Albert Einstein. My favorite one is about body time vs. mechanical time. Body time is the world of hunger, moods, and circadian rhythms, while mechanical time is the world of clocks and alarms. It‘d be fun to switch between these time speeds throughout the year. To help myself enter the calm flow of body time, I’ve deliberately chosen not to put any clocks in my home.
LSD and Acid in the 1960s: I’ve spent the week reading Joan Didion’s Slouching Towards Bethlehem and Tom Wolfe’s Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Both are reflections on a time when the government experimented with these powerful substances, and drugs took over parts of San Francisco’s social life. Didion’s take is the pessimistic one, Wolfe’s is more optimistic. The movement began in 1959, when the US government began testing the effects of acid and LSD on its citizens as part of a CIA mind control program called Project MKUltra. For a video introduction, I recommend this YouTube documentary.
Beauty is the Privilege We Never Talk About: Being beautiful makes life much, much easier. First, we’ll start with the obvious. Speed dating research shows that beauty is the most important factor in choosing a mate. But attractive people are also more likely to be hired for a job and seen as competent. This quote from the article stands out, even though it’s so extreme that I’m skeptical of it: “This bias for beauty can cause real harm. In a meta analysis of the role of attractiveness in criminal sentencing, it was found that unattractive people received 120–305 percent longer sentences than attractive people. As a comparison, another study found that black people received 6–20 percent longer sentences than white people. Yes, in criminal sentencing, looks were over 10x more important than race.” Beauty, then, is the ultimate privilege.
The Dream of Philosophy: A two-part series about the history of modern philosophy. The first book, The Dream of Reason, begins in Ancient Greece and goes to the Renaissance. The second,The Dream of Enlightenment, picks up where the first one left off and focuses on The Enlightenment. The ideas are clearly written but aren’t dumbed down, which is what you want from a book about philosophy.
The Imitation of Christ: In honor of Christmas, this is the most widely-read Christian devotional book outside of the Bible. It was published in the 15th century, and by 1650, it was one of the most published books in existence with a grand total of… 745 copies. The book was published anonymously. With humility and inspired by Christian teachings, the author wrote: “One should love to be unknown… Do not let the writer’s authority or learning influence you, be it little or great, but let the love of pure truth attract you to read. Do not ask ‘Who said this?’ but pay attention to what is said.” Amen to that.
Pete Davis Harvard Commencement Speech: My life improved dramatically once I stopped chasing optionality and committed to the things that mattered to me most. The catalyst was an article called The Trouble With Optionality, which I can’t recommend enough. On the same theme, this commencement speech is a critique of what the philosopher Zygmunt Bauman called “Liquid Modernity,” a state of ambivalent identities where people switch between identities without committing to any of them, just so they can “keep their options open.”
Abraham Joshua Heschel: I discovered Heschel in the Fall on a recommendation from Rabbi David Wolpe. And boy, am I glad I did. He’s an artist with words. I started with The Sabbath, and last night, I read the vast majority of Man’s Quest for God in one sitting. No matter your faith, you will enjoy his books if you’re feeling contemplative.
Gardens Need Walls: On Boundaries, Ritual, and Beauty: Walls are everywhere in nature. In complex systems, boundaries are everywhere. Ancestral, well-established solutions to basic problems like food and housing also solve higher-level problems like the need for social cohesion. New technologies tend to solve basic problems, but not higher-level ones.
Gardens: An Essay on the Human Condition: It is no coincidence that the bible story begins in The Garden of Eden. Gardens are a metaphor for life. They balance order and chaos, life and death, nature and nurture.
Definite Optimism as Human Capital: We can nurture optimism by developing a greater appreciation for industry and reaching for higher economic growth. Pushing forward the technological frontier isn’t somebody else’s problem. It’s our responsibility.
The Big Here and the Long Now: Brian Eno is the ultimate polymath. Part musician, part intellectual, Eno teamed up with Stewart Brand to found the Long Now Foundation and change how humans think about time. The Long Now is the recognition that the precise moment you’re in grows out of the past and is a seed for the future. The longer your sense of Now, the more past and future it includes. I also recommend Eno’s interviews.
The Founder’s Paradox by Peter Thiel: Extreme innovators are full of contradictions. They are extreme insiders and extreme outsiders, gods and scapegoats. Inspired by Rene Girard’s Mimetic Theory, Peter Thiel’s “Founder Paradox” will radically transform how you think about talent, creativity and personality traits.
Peter Zeihan on the Future of Geopolitics: Peter Zeihan shares a narrative-defying perspective on the future of the world. A geopolitical strategist, Zeihan weaves insights about demographics, security, and global energy into a charming and humorous talk, which is as fun as it is interesting.
Leverage Points: Places to Intervene in a System: Most books are extended articles. This article is a shortened book. It’s jam-packed with powerful information. It’s the best introduction to systems I’ve ever seen. Systems are everywhere, and if you want to change them, the author recommends 12 places to intervene, and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each one.
Jaques Ellul and Marshall McLuhan: I’ve been pulling at a bizarre intellectual paradox. I am simultaneously a strong believer in progress, but believe we ignore the wisdom of tradition at our own peril. Drawing on the two edges of a single string makes me a progressive and a reactionary. I’ve been studying mid-20th-century technological theory to resolve the tension. I’ve cited McLuhan in a handful of essays, and Ellul’s ideas mesh with McLuhan’s observations. This is the best introduction I’ve found to the similarities and differences between them. You’ll enjoy the ideas, even if you don’t have any background knowledge on Ellul or McLuhan.
Dishwashers: There are two ways to read this article. First, you can read it for the literal interpretation. Dishwashers aren’t as powerful as they used to be. They used to wash our dishes in less than an hour, and leave them shiny and clean. But today, it takes 3-4 hours to clean your dishes, and dishwashers don’t work as well as they used to. That brings me to the second way you can read this article. Deep down, it’s a story about the downsides of regulation and environmentalism. Read the article with both lenses.
Michael Polanyi: A very smart friend turned me onto Polanyi’s ideas. Most of his work is about the intersection between markets, capitalism, and society, but I also enjoyed learning about Polanyi’s Paradox — the idea that we know more than we can explain. If you’re interested in Polanyi, start with this essay called The Uruk Machine, which also talks about the work of James Scott and Eric Hoffer.
Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act: One of the core failings of the U.S. political system is that we focus so much on the executive branch that we lose sight of crucial pieces of legislation in other parts of the government. These days, certain lawmakers are fighting to repeal Section 230 of the Communication Decency Act. Basically, it protects publishers of information from the repercussions of distributing ideas created by another content provider. I’ll let you be the judge of whether or not repealing the act is a good idea. But to help you learn about it, here’s the Wikipedia introduction, the law itself, and an explanation from the Federal Communications Commission.
The Unbearable Lightness of Being: Damn, what a magnificent book. The story isn’t very good, but only because it’s a canvas to explore the philosophy of love and the tensions of a life well-lived. This quote is a wonderful summary of what makes the book so magical: “The heaviest of burdens crushes us, we sink beneath it, it pins us to the ground. But … the heavier the burden, the closer our lives come to the earth, the more real and truthful they become. Conversely, the absolute absence of a burden causes a man to be lighter than air, to soar into the heights, take leave of the earth and his earthly being, and become only half real, his movements as free as they are insignificant.” Earlier this year, one of my favorite painters told me he‘ll never live a luxurious life because it’ll distance him from the human experience. Pain can be challenging, he said. But it can also magnify the experience of being alive.
The Psychology of Human Misjudgment: This one is all the way on the opposite spectrum of life. Charlie Munger gave this speech at Harvard University in 1995. In it, he outlines shows how humans make bad decisions by drawing upon lessons from behavioral psychology. You can read the full transcript or listen to the audio.
Designing a New Old Home: Simon Sarris is the best online writer I’ve found in the past few months. He writes with a level of soul that you rarely find on the Internet, which I aspire to whenever I tap my keyboard. This two part series outlines his thought-process behind designing a rural home in New Hampshire, from ceiling heights, to room sizes, to the carpets in the kitchen. On his recommendation, I’ve also been enjoying a book called Get Your House Right, which applies the wisdom of traditional architecture to modern living.
Solitude and Leadership: This speech is fantastic. It’s about why leaders need to spend time alone, even though most people think of solitude as the antithesis of leadership. It was delivered by William Deresiewicz at West Point. It’s as spiritual as it is insightful.
The Disadvantages of an Elite Education: I’ve always liked William Deresiewicz. I’ve recommended his Solitude and Leadership essay, but he’s at his best while writing about higher education. He spent two dozen years at Yale and Columbia, where he dissected the psychology of elite students. Though almost every American student wants to attend an Ivy League school, this essay highlights the drawbacks of doing so, and he does it with awe-inducing prose.
On Re-doing Things: Kevin Kelly once said: “To make something good, just do it. To make something great, just re-do it, re-do it, re-do it. The secret to making fine things is in remaking them.” The essay explores this idea in a kind of soul-driven fashion that you rarely see on the Internet. It made me realize that heart-wrenching creative work is driven by two forces: the desire to produce and the pain of actually doing it, and only once the thirst of desire is stronger than the anguish of hard work can you do great work.
Roger Scruton: One of the leading conservative thinkers died, and I knew almost nothing about him. I wanted to change that, so I spent time watching Roger Scruton’s interviews. In particular, I enjoyed this video interview and this written summary.
Mimetic Theory: This is an unbelievable explanation of Mimetic Theory, and it’s probably the best one I’ve ever seen. The theory was developed by Rene Girard, a cultural anthropologist who history will remember as one of the greatest scholars of all-time. If you’re looking for a video summary, I recommend this series of five interviews with Girard himself. Peter Thiel and Girard were close friends. Thiel spoke at Girard’s funeral, and I wrote extensively about the influence of Mimetic Theory on Thiel’s worldview in this essay.
John David Ebert: Ebert is a brilliant orator, with a rich understanding of observant, but under-the-radar thinkers like Marshall McLuhan and Oswald Spengler. Ebert’s work is a fusion of religious studies, media studies, and contemporary philosophy. Start with this serious of videos on Marshall McLuhan. And if they catch you, check out Ebert’s collection of published books.
Interfluidity: This is an obscure but fantastic blog. It sits at the intersection of government, economics, and technology. In particular, I enjoyed this essay called Economic Geography of a Universal Basic Income, which argues against the economic consensus that we should help as many people move to cities as possible. To date, it’s the best counter-argument I have seen against my essay, Grow the Merry-Go-Round.
Antonin Scalia on American Exceptionalism: Scalia’s opening remarks on the Role of Judges under the U.S Constitution. In his remarks, Scalia discusses the importance of grid lock and distributed power in government.
The Liquid Self: A prescient essay from 2013 which predicted the shift in identity brought by the Internet. It re-thinks the permanence of the social media profile and imagines the possibility of a living, fluid, and always changing identity made possible by the Internet. The post still lives on Snapchat’s website. If you’re interested in Evan Spiegel’s early thinking, I also recommend this 4-minute video about social media culture and online communication.
The Electricity Metaphor: I’m surprised that this 2007 TED talk is so rarely shared. In it, Jeff Bezos uses electricity as a metaphor for the Internet’s future by comparing the dot-com boom and bust not to the Gold Rush, but to the early days of the power industry.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: This is my go-to resource for everything philosophy. It’s like a better philosophy-focused Wikipedia with more information than you’ll ever be able to consume about the major ideas and thinkers. Fair warning… if you like philosophy, this is a black hole.
Postscript on Societies of Control: I’d like to read more Giles Deleuze in the future, but this was a good start. In this short essay, he talks about the transition of capitalism from production to financialization, and from a disciplinary society to a society of control. Before reading, here’s a summary. I also recommend John David Ebert’s lecture series on Deleuze and Guattari.
Based Deleuze: Justin Murphy published a book called Based Deleuze, about a philosopher named Gilles Deleuze, who history will remember as one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century. Depending on the tier you choose, the book comes with a series of lectures from Justin himself. I recommend Murphy’s introduction because Deleuze is notoriously difficult you understand (you know, those French philosophers), and his talks will help you ease into the material. If you’re interested in philosophy, you might also enjoy Johannes Achill Niederhauser’s YouTube channel about classical philosophy.
The Nuclear Family: If you read one link, this should be it. It’s an exceptional explanation of why big families aren’t as common as they used to be. Many of the major political battles, such as free healthcare and universal basic income, are downstream from the changes in family structure that author David Brooks describes in this article.
Justin Murphy: I’m wildly impressed with this up-and-coming philosopher. Murphy’s work is a reaction to the intellectual claustrophobia of academia. I can say with 100% certainty that you won’t agree with all his ideas. Nevertheless, I admire his intellectual courage, so I hope more philosophers can use the Internet to pursue fringe ideas that need to be discussed. Start with his podcast, his Twitter account, or his YouTube channel.
Aaron Lewis: When it comes to the intersection of technology, culture, and society, this guy is one of the most under-rated thinkers out there. In particular, I recommend his articles on post-truth in the age of the Internet, and writing pseudonymously on the Internet.
Battling to the End: If you’re interested in Rene Girard, start with his interviews instead of his books. This heuristic applies to many great thinkers who are hard to understand because people tend to be easier to understand in spoken word than text. Here’s a collection of quotes from Battling to the End, a series of conversations about the apocalyptic threats hanging over our planet and the mimetic laws of violence.
Generic Drugs: A fascinating podcast with Peter Attia and Katherine Eban discussing widespread fraud in the generic drug industry. Attia hosts one of my favorite podcasts. Eban is an investigative journalist and the author of Bottle of Lies, which outlines the history of corruption in the generic drugs industry through the lens of an Indian drug company named Ranbaxy. This episode is an absolute roller-coaster.
The Moral Equivalent of War: An 1906 essay from William James where he argues society needs a way to re-create the strengthening, hardening, and uniting factors that war provides. Without a “moral equivalent of war,” our society will degenerate. The essay inspired organized national service programs like the Peace Corps, VISTA, and AmeriCorps.
Nassim Taleb’s Book Reviews: If you’re looking for book recommendations, I recommend Nassim Taleb’s book reviews on Amazon. If you’re interested in evolution, investing, or statistics, this page is for you. Of all the books, Explaining Social Behaviorcaught my attention the most.
Eric Weinstein’s Old Edge Articles: First, I need to make sure you’re familiar with Eric Weinstein’s podcast, The Portal. If not, stop what you’re doing and start listening as soon as you can. I recommend the opening episode with Peter Thiel or his conversation with Anna Khackiyan. But I also recommend the articles Eric wrote for Edge magazine. You’ll find all the articles here. I recommend this article on excellence or this one about string theory.
Seeking Wisdom: Peter Bevelin is one of the most under-rated authors there is. His book Seeking Wisdomwas one of the first books that made me realize how little I knew about the world. Building off the ideas of people like Charles Darwin and Charlie Munger, it shocked me into intellectual curiosity. If this is your kind of thing, I recommend a 75-minute speech by Charlie Munger called The Psychology of Human Misjudgement which I listened to on repeat all week.
Capitalism and Schizophrenia: This is the best rabbit hole I’ve been down in a while. In the essay, Jonah Peretti, the founder of BuzzFeed laid out the theory behind his company years before he started it. His essay builds upon the work of Fredric Jameson, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari to present a new perspective on the relationship between identity and capitalism. The best explanation of Peretti’s essay comes from a YouTube channel called Cuck Philosophy. I also recommend this background article from Vox.
Cuck Philosophy: This YouTube channel is a collection of 10-20 minute videos about different aspects of postmodernist theory. Start with this video about Baudrillard and The Matrixor this one about societies of control.
Jose Ricon: This is one of the most under-rated blogs I know. Jose writes about the intersection of science and technology with more thoroughness as anybody I know. Imagine if all journalism was this good. To start, I recommend his deep-dives into longevity, the slowdown in physics, and Bloom’s two-sigma problem for mastery learning. This blog will make you say “I can’t believe this is free.”
Jacobin Magazine: On my journey to engage with Marx’s ideas, one of my most conservative friends turned me onto this socialist magazine covering economics, culture, and politics. It’s excellent. I enjoyed this essay on the history of the gig economy and its influence on the French labor market.
Beauty: When Roger Scruton passed away, Nassim Taleb wrote: “Fiercely independent, [Roger Scruton] was one of the last thinkers who used their own head.” I didn’t know who he was, so I watched as many of his interviews on YouTube as I could find. I also read his book introduction to Beauty: A Very Short Introduction and watched his documentary on the same subject — both of which are excellent.
Breaking Smart: Venkatesh Rao is brilliant and this is his best piece of work. With only eight reviews on Amazon, it’s the ultimate hidden gem. The book is about how “software is eating the world,” and it includes topics like the dismantling of the traditional life script and the evolution of online work. You can purchase the book on Kindle or read the entire thing for free online. These ideas are a decade ahead of their time.
David Harvey: This is the best introduction to Karl Marx I’ve found. I binge-listened to the Reading Capitalpodcast series and bought Harvey’s book, A Companion to Capital. They are both fantastic. The problem with studying Marx is most modern scholars twist his ideas into a political agenda. But Harvey does none of that. He focuses on the text instead. If you want to read Marx, you can visit Marxists.org instead of buying his books.
Horseshoe Theory: I see this idea everywhere. Extreme opposites have a tendency to look the same. For example, a far-right movement and a far-left movement can be equally violent or desire a similar outcome. People on both sides are more similar to each other than they are to people in the center. Here’s a summary.
Common Knowledge: One of the most important ideas I know. Often, it’s not enough for one person to know something. The dynamics of a situation change when everybody knows that everybody knows something. That’s why sermons are repetitive and often have a call-and-response style. Read Ads Don’t Work that Wayif you want something quick or Rational Ritualif you want a book-length treatment of the idea.
Tools for Conversation: A fun and very detailed re-imagination of what chat messaging should look like. Basically, the structure of modern messaging platforms doesn’t reflect the way the brain works or the way people engage with ideas in real life.
Google Platforms Rant: This might be the most famous memo in recent Silicon Valley history. It was written by a Google engineer named Steve Yegge. Focusing on the differences between Google and Amazon (where he used to work), the memo was supposed to be shared internally, but it accidentally leaked.
Predicting Horse Races: When it comes to predicting the future,too much information can be a bad thing. This transcript tells the story of a study done by a world-class psychologist named Paul Slovic in 1974 and shows how horse gamblers can deceive themselves as the amount of information increases. Substitute horse gamblers with investors and this article becomes even more interesting. (If you’re interested in predictions, check out Dominic Cummings’ review of Superforecasters).
OkCupid Dating Blog: This blog is so interesting that most of the posts were deleted. Here’s the backstory: an online dating platform named OKCupid shared its best insights on online dating, and focused more on the data than political correctness. Here’s a Reddit thread about the blog. In particular, I recommend the articles about people lying about their height and attractiveness distributions between men and women.
Seth Godin’s Blog: Nobody writes short articles better than Seth Godin. If you’re looking for something to read, start with his top 100 articles. They’re a masterclass in clear writing. You can also check out my interview with him here.
The Love that Lays the Swale in Rows: Woah, what a fantastic essay. It’s an excerpt from the last chapter of Nicholas Carr’s book, The Glass Cage. To date, it’s the best argument I’ve seen against automation. The whole piece is thought-provoking, and the writing quality is the cherry on top.
The Right to Useful Unemployment: Every now and then, it is my duty to put Ivan Illych on your radar. He wrote in the 1970s, but his ideas still feel prescient. He argues that expertise and technology are Faustian Bargains — deals with the devil that destroy communities, tarnish mental health, and dehumanize people. You won’t necessarily agree with him, but his books will introduce you to critiques you won’t find elsewhere.
A Critique of Stoicism: Simon Sarris is one of my favorite up-and-coming Internet writers, and this essay is an excellent place to begin with his work. It’s a critique of Stoicism, using David Foster Wallace’s This is Waterspeech. Sarris’ essay is the best place to begin, but if you want to dive deeper down the Stoicism rabbit hole, read this essay on the ethics of Stoicism.
Nassim Taleb Statistical Videos: I’ll outsource this recommendation to some rando in the YouTube comments: “Taleb is the only guy who can make a 3-minute video, and get 30 minutes of watch time per video.” That’s exactly right. Start with this 3-minute video on single point estimates in statistics, then browse the entire channel.
Johnathan Bi: This guy is one of the best up-and-coming writers I know. He writes exceptional book summaries, such as this one on Alexis de Tocqueville’s Democracy in America. If that’s not your style, I recommend this one on Rene Girard’s Battling to the End or this short one on Locke’s Second Treatise of Government.
David Foster Wallace Interviews: I devoured David Foster Wallace’s interviews, trying to understand why he’s the voice for a generation. His writing is exceptional, but also sad, depressing, and at times, mopey. History will remember him as one of the most iconic authors of the late 20th century. Start with this unedited interview, which is as revealing as it is awkward. Then, watch his interview with Charlie Rose. As you do, pay attention to his awareness of the moment and his obsession with what other people think of him.
Kevin Kwok: I first met Kevin in New York City. After two hours of conversation over a cocktail, I called a friend and said “I just got drinks with one of the smartest people I’ve ever met.” I can confirm that’s true. I hosted Kevin on the podcast six months later, and now I’m a passionate consumer of his ideas. In particular, I recommend his essays on the origins of populism, and this one about Rich Barton, the founder of Expedia, Zillow, and Glassdoor.
Fourth-World Country: Everybody is familiar with the ideas of first-world, second-world, and third-world countries, but this short article describes a model for a fourth-world country. It shines a light on the social and economic distress people now feel in first-world countries.
Peter Turchin: I can’t believe I just found this guy. I’ve only read one of his essays: Intra-Elite Competition: A Key Concept for Understanding the Dynamics of Complex Societies. Phenomenal.
How Long-Haul Trucking Works: Supply chains impact all our lives, but they are mostly outside our field of view. Trucking moves the vast majority of the world’s freight, and 73% of America’s domestic freight. This video explains the economics of the industry, from driver salaries to truck stops on the highway. The video was made by an excellent channel called Wendover Productions. One of the commenters described it best: “Wendover is like a solar eclipse: He doesn’t come out often, but when he does it’s a treat.”
Age of Abundance: This article deserves way more attention. It was first published in 2016 by Tal Shachar (here’s my podcast with him), and so much of it has come true. For years, I used Tal’s essays as a roadmap for how the future would unfold. He predicted it with stunning accuracy. This essay focuses on the shift from information scarcity to abundance, and how it will invert the media industry.
My Instagram: If you haven’t heard of n + 1magazine, it’s time to change that. Each of the long-form essays provides a window into modern culture with a writing style that reminds me of the Paris Review. This Instagram essay tells the story of the author’s evolving relationship with the platform, and how the world around her became optimized for the Instagram aesthetic.
The Geopolitics of Oil: Word-for-worth, this is the best introduction to the oil industry I’ve found. Though the article is about oil, I particularly enjoyed learning about copper production, which is concentrated in only four countries: Chile, Peru, China, and the United States. Collectively, they produce more than half of the world’s copper. Relative to oil, it can be easily stockpiled. And every year, the United States consumes 1.8 million tons of it, one-third of which is imported.
Awakening from the Meaning Crisis: A thought-provoking YouTube series where John Vervaeke explores why modern citizens are so desperate for meaning in their lives. His premise is that we are in the midst of a mental health crisis, highlighted by increases in anxiety, despair, and depression. Here’s a 3-minute introduction. If you’re just getting started, here are some notes on the first episode.
Tradition is Smarter Than You Are: As a general rule, the faster information flows, the less a society will value tradition, and today, information flows faster than ever. Our respect for the wisdom of our ancestors is further diminished by social media’s bias for the present, which I call the Never-Ending Now. But tradition is often a strategy for helping culture survive over long periods of time, even though the people within it are short-term oriented. This article does a superb job of explaining the now-forgotten value of tradition.
The Geopolitics of the United States: A superb two-part series on America’s geography and how it shapes the country’s politics. The USA has a lot of structural advantages. For example, it has a big ocean on both sides of the country, the world’s largest contiguous piece of farmland, more major ports than the rest of the Western hemisphere, and more navigable internal waterways than the rest of the world combined.
In Praise of Idleness: A 1932 essay from Bertrand Russell where he talks about the cult of workaholism, and what we should do to avoid it. He talks about the problems with seeing hard work as inherently virtuous, and how our obsession with hard work leads to a concept for stillness. Here’s a summary from Maria Popova.
Webster’s 1913 Dictionary: Write with a better dictionary. Modern dictionaries have lazy definitions that focus too much on simplicity at the cost of precision. Instead of using the default one on your computer, bookmark this site, and start using the Webster’s 1913 dictionary. Alternatively, you can download it for your Kindle or computer with this link.
Netflix: An 8-part essay series about Netflix from Matthew Ball, who is the best big media analyst I know. Every essay in the series covers a different aspect of how people misunderstand the company. Topics include the company’s content budget, their product & technology stack, how they think about scale, the paradox of the original series term, and how bond markets or cash losses will shape their future.
The Utopia of Rules: David Graeber is one of those authors who is often wrong, but always interesting. In this interview, Graeber talks about how society has squeezed the eccentrics out of institutions, homogenized academia, and invented drugs to cope with bureaucracy’s tedious, all-consuming sprawl.
Alice Schroeder on Warren Buffett: An illuminating interview with Warren Buffet’s biographer. I particularly enjoyed this quote: “He’s cautious and non-confrontational. He’s wary of extremes in all forms. He’s insistently reluctant to criticize anyone and hypersensitive to criticism himself. He needs to be liked and needs approval, but paradoxically is not a people-pleaser.” The best parts were about his relationships and hyper-awareness of risk.
Karl Ove Knausgård: I’ve been fascinated by Karl ever since I heard his interview with Tyler Cowen, my favorite episode of Tyler’s Conversations with Tyler podcast. Knausgård is uniquely capable of articulating nuggets of wisdom and wrapping them in the kinds of stories that only a posture of radical transparency can give you. Someday, I may find the courage to reach his six-volume series, My Struggle. But for now, I’ll recommend this New Yorker profile.
Definite Optimism as Human Capital: This is one of my all-time favorite online essays. In it, Dan Wang makes the case that optimism is a goal worth striving for. He suggests we do that by gaining a greater appreciation for industry, extending the technological frontier, and the benefits of economic growth. Ideas from this essay are sprinkled throughout my 15,000-word essay about Peter Thiel.
George Soros’ Theory: One of the most successful investors of the 20th century laid out his Karl Popper inspired investment philosophy in a series of lectures about the Open Society, reflexivity, capitalism, and the financial crisis.
Bryson DeChambeau: During my freshman year of high school, I played in a golf tournament in Fresno and watched Bryson his balls on the range next to me. I had never seen a golfer swing a club so smoothly. From the instant I saw him play, I knew he would turn pro. Today, he is the 7th ranked golfer in the world. He also hits the ball farther than any other golfer on the PGA Tour. Most impressive of all, he’s climbed up the world golf rankings with a tactful fitness regimen and on-course strategy. His rise to stardom is one of the most interesting stories in the sports world. For more, I recommend this Golf Digest article, this interview with his swing coach Chris Como, and this interview about his off-season fitness regimen. People call him “The Golf Scientist.” Even if you aren’t a golfer, there’s a lot to learn from him. His rise should be a much bigger story.
Music and Burial in Human Evolution: If you aren’t familiar with Kevin Simler’s writing, it’s time to change that. He writes at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and evolution. His entire archive is worth reading but I recommend this essay on music in particular. Humans are the only ground-dwelling species that sings (the others like birds, gibbons, dolphins, whales, and seals sing from water or the air). Of all the animals that sing, humans are the only ones that use rhythm. This essay explores why.
Andrew Kortina: One of my new favorite essayists. I recently read his article called Virtualization, Forklifts, Microphones, Shipping Containers, Video Conferencing, Stethoscopes. In it, the author talks about the acceleration of certain kinds of technological adoption because COVID created winners and losers in the economy. When it comes to the intersection of technology, labor, and automation, Kortina is one of the best writers I know. Here’s his full essay archive. You might like his essay Social Systems are Computations that Minimize Uncertainty.
Mark Zuckerberg Interview in 2005: “It’s essentially an online directory for students, where people can go and look up other people and find relevant information about them. Everything from what they’re interested in, to their contact information, what course they’re taking, who they know, who their friends are, what people say about them, and what photos they have now. It’s mostly a utility for people to figure out what’s going on in their lives and in their friends’ lives, for people they care about.”
My Life Pouring Concrete: One man’s haunting perspective on the construction industry, which he says is plagued by alcoholism and opioid addiction. This quote stuck out: “Most of the men I worked with had little formal education. Many had a criminal record. Men working in construction and extraction have the highest suicide rate of any industry, as well as the highest rate of opioid addiction and (predictably) overdoses. Alcoholism rates are second only to the mining industry.” An excellent read, even if it’s a difficult one.
Plato’s Views on Education: I read Book 7 of The Republicby Plato and wanted to dive deeper into his philosophy of education. At the childhood level, he believed in a free approach to learning. As he famously wrote: “Knowledge which is acquired under compulsion has no hold on the mind. Therefore, do not use compulsion, but let early education be rather a sort of amusement; this will better enable you to find out the natural bent of the child.” For a detailed summary, I recommend this excellent Quora answer.
The Closing of the American Mind: This book is worth returning to, in part because it was one of the best-selling books in America in 1987. It remains as controversial today as it was when it was published. But the author Alan Bloom isn’t a shmuck. He wrote one of the canonical translations for The Republic (free PDF here) and studied under Leo Strauss too. Since this was so popular, there are excellent analyses of it too. For a written one, I recommend this praise-filled article in the American Conservativeor this critique in Rolling Stone. Or, if you prefer audio, here’s a one-hour summary.
David McCollough Interview: One of my all-time favorite interviews with one of the great American biographers. My father read his book about the Wright Brothers and said it was superb. The Pulitzer Prize award winner has also written books about John Adams, Harry Truman, and The Brooklyn Bridge. Not a single one of his books has ever gone out of print. I actually haven’t read any of them yet, so I can only recommend this excellent interview.
Robert Kurson: Woah. His books are non-fiction narratives at their best. Rocket Men is an excellent recounting of the Apollo 8 space mission where three astronauts flew around the moon. I was reading snippets from the book and enjoyed them so much that I immediately purchased another book of his: Shadow Divers.
Post Office: Aaron Gordon wrote a newsletter about the New York City subway system. After, he created a newsletter about the United States Postal Service. Gordon is at his best when he writes about bureaucracy, incentives, and organizational management. He nailed it with the subway system and to date, I haven’t found anybody who writes about those topics better. If you want to read about the NY subway system, I recommend this article about “The Subway Action Plan.”
Academy of Ideas: A series of short podcasts and YouTube videos, with transcripts of every episode to make note-taking easy. In particular, I enjoyed this one about Modern Art and the Decline of Civilization, which builds upon Nietzche’s Will to Powerand Nikolai Berdyaev’s The Meaning of History, which looks like an excellent book. I’ll remember Carl Jung’s quote that art is “the unwitting mouthpiece of the psychic secrets of [the] times.” Through their creations, artists give form to the underlying psychology of their culture.
Christianity: Studying Christianity is one of the best ways to understand the West. I can’t believe I just discovered Peter Kreeft. His website has in-depth articles about evidence for the resurrection of Christ and the uniqueness of Christianity. The friend who introduced me to Peter’s work is a Rene Girard scholar and he recommended this introduction to Christianity as the best book-length treatment of the subject.
Elena Shalneva: We need a word for the sadness you feel after you’ve read everything an author’s ever published, and there’s nothing new left to explore. That’s exactly how I feel about Elena’s work. Start with this essay In Defence of the Humanities or this one about work as the tragedy of our age.
Why the West Needs Plato: A good overview of Plato’s philosophy of government. He was skeptical of too much democracy, so he wanted society to be run by guardians who focused on long-term prosperity and weren’t influenced by the winds of culture. Too much democracy, he said, would give way to anarchy and tyranny.
Julian Lehr: One of the Internet’s best up-and-coming writers. This essay is a critique of note-taking apps, inspired by Basecamp’s new Hey email product. He argues that the current paradigm of note-taking apps such as Evernote and Notion suffer from being stand-alone apps. Note-taking should be more spacial and should work more like an operating system for your life. Right now, there is too much context switching between apps.
An Introduction to the Kelly Criterion: A formula that calculates what percentage of your net worth you should wage in order to maximize your expected wealth increase. This quote explains why the formula is important: “A trader with mediocre strategy and a great risk model will become fairly successful. A trader with a great strategy and a mediocre risk model will become bankrupt.” I also enjoyed this one from Ed Seykota: “There are old traders, and there are bold traders. There are very few old, bold traders.” But the most interesting part of the article was learning that traders shouldn’t actually bet on the Kelly-optimal formula because the real world rarely has known probabilities and payoffs.
Athletes Don’t Down Their Tattoos: Here’s an interesting question: Should athletes own the tattoos on their bodies? Some legal experts say that tattoos are technically owned by the tattoo artist, not the person with the actual tattoos. Some artists are suing video games that display their tattoos, such as the ones on LeBron James’ body. To avoid the commotion, some professional athletes now sign contracts with artists before the needle goes into their body. Here’s a short introduction.
Ted Polhemus: An under-rated fashion theorist who writes about the sociology of the body and how we communicate with style. In particular, I recommend his articles on the relationship between appearance and identity and why body decoration makes us human. If you’re feeling ambitious, he wrote a short book in 1978 called Fashion & Anti-Fashion.
WEIRD Societies: Joseph Henrich is one of my favorite academics (here’s my podcast interview with him). I found him through his excellent book, The Secret of Our Success. More recently, he’s been studying WEIRD societies (the acronym stands for Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic). For more, I recommend his talk at UBS, his 2010 paper on WEIRD societies, or this article about the Church’s influence on Western kinship.
It’s Charisma, Stupid: An old article from Paul Graham, where he argues that the more charismatic candidate has won every election since 1964. Why? Television, which rewarded a different kind of presidential candidate. He cites an exception from the 1968 election but says it actually proves the rule because television debates were still evolving. Here’s a relevant data point from my What the Hell is Going On essay: “During the U.S. presidential election in 1968, the average soundbite—that is, any footage of a candidate speaking uninterrupted—was still a little more than 40 seconds, but that had fallen to less than 10 seconds at the end of the 80s and 7.8 seconds in 2000.”
Oxford Very Short Introductions: I worked through the founding articles of the United States and starting with this book about the Constitution. It’s part of this excellent series of introductory books from Oxford. If you read nothing else but these books for three years, you’d be the smartest polymath in your entire social group. It’s not that exciting, but it’s an excellent learning strategy.
McLuhan Galaxy: Marshall McLuhan is one of my all-time favorite writers, but he’s notoriously hard to read. Luckily, the folks at McLuhan Galaxy curate his ideas and put them into readable prose. Understanding his ideas is table stakes for understanding how the Internet is changing the world. But instead of reading his books, start with this website.
Why Be Jewish?: I read this short book to prepare for my interview with Rabbi David Wolpe. It’s written for people considering a return to the faith or people who are drawn to conversion, but it doubles as an introduction to Jewish values for anybody interested in the subject. For a more secular treatment of the same idea, I recommend Oxford’s short introduction to Judaism.
Michael Nielsen’s Quotes Page: This page is so good that it makes me jealous that I don’t have something similar. Michael Nielsen (who I interviewed here) compiled his favorite quotes from people like Richard Feynman, Brian Eno, and Susan Sontag. Oh, and by the way, if you haven’t heard of Michael, it’s time to change that. Start with this essay about developing transformative tools for thought.
Oswald Spengler: One of the most under-rated philosophers out there. As an early 20th century writer, his work is a blend of Joseph Campbell, Martin Heidegger, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. His most famous book is called The Decline of the West, which hints at his pessimism about the future of civilization. For an introduction, I recommend this short article or John David Ebert’s lecture series.
In Praise of the Gods: A soul-filled essay from Simon Sarris, where he critiques rationality as one of our most powerful tools, but also one of our worst excesses. The essay is an argument for post-rational wisdom and a more intuitive orientation towards the world. This is a masterpiece.
Lee Kuan Yew Speech: Lee Kuan Yew served as the Prime Minister of Singapore from 1959 – 1990, and this is my favorite speech of his. It conveys a seriousness that the American government should learn from. This is my favorite quote: “I ignore polling as a method of government. I think that shows a certain weakness of mind, an inability to chart a course. Whichever way the wind blows. Whichever way the media encourages the people to go, you follow. You’re not a leader.”
Andrey Miroshnichenko: I’m going to do something I rarely do and share a book I haven’t read. But this one is worth it. Miroshnichenko wrote one of my favorite books of all time: Human as Media. He’s a criminally under-rated media theorist, and on Tuesday, he messaged me to tell me about the launch of his new book: Postjournalism and the Death of Newspapers.
Preference Falsification: One of my favorite ideas from Timur Kuran. It comes from a book called Public Truths, Private Lies(here’s a written summary and a podcast about it), where Kuran shows how people lie about their beliefs to look good in social situations. As Martin Luther King once said: “Many people fear nothing more terribly than to take a position which stands out sharply and clearly from the prevailing opinion. The tendency of most is to adopt a view that is so ambiguous that it will include everything and so popular that it will include everybody. Not a few men who cherish lofty and noble ideas hide them under a bushel for fear of being called different.” Once you learn about preference falsification, you’ll start seeing it everywhere. For more ideas like this, here’s a list of 50 that shaped my worldview.
Mimetic Traps: This article belongs in the “everybody should read this category.” The author reflects on his experience in academia, where he was so focused on imitating his peers and pursuing competition that he ended up wasting his time on meaningless work.
Reflections on Asperger’s Syndrome: Peter Thiel has long condemned the modern world for making it so difficult for people to follow-through on original ideas that founders with Asperger’s account for the lion’s share of successful startups. Too strong a dose can obviously be crippling. People with Asperger’s are unemployed at rates that far exceed the general population. But a smaller dose may increase the chances of making a breakthrough innovation.
The Sabbath: Rabbi David Wolpe strongly recommended this little book when I interviewed him. It’s 100 pages, so you can read it all in one sitting. The writing is exquisite too. The author argues that we need the Sabbath to honor time because we spend the rest of our lives honoring space. We work in service of the grand, the concrete, and the magnificent, but only with the Sabbath do we honor the majesty of time.
Loneliness and Totalitarianism: Hannah Arendt is famous for her 1951 book, The Origins of Totalitarianism, and this summary of her thoughts on loneliness as it pertains to totalitarianism is superb. In particular, I resonated with her distinction between loneliness and the state of simply being alone.
The Ruthless Elimination of Hurry: I have such a love-hate relationship with this book. I can’t stand the writing. It’s written like an ultra-conversational blog post, which makes it hard to take it seriously. But some parts of the book are fantastic. It’s written by a Portland-based Christian pastor who makes a strong case for taking a weekly Sabbath and re-thinking our relationship with time. With that said, the people in my book club loved the book. One guy has already read it three times this year.
Fallibalism: I discovered this idea in The Beginning of Infinity by David Deutsch. It outlines a philosophy of constant learning and a consistent march towards truth. In addition to correcting your past mistakes, you aim to question the assumptions that everybody takes for granted. Or, as the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy defines it: “Fallibilism is the epistemological thesis that no belief can ever be rationally supported or justified in a conclusive way. Always, there remains a possible doubt as to the truth of the belief.” To begin, I recommend this quote from Deutsch.
Pirsig’s Metaphysics of Quality: Robert Pirsig is famous for a book called Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. It’s an excellent book that has almost nothing to do with motorcycles. But instead of recommending the entire book, I’ll point you to his metaphysics of quality. In the book, he tries to define quality even though it precedes any intellectual description of it. Like beauty, it exists as a perceptual experience that words cannot describe. Start with the Wikipedia article or this Philosophy Now explainer.
Elite Overproduction: Peter Turchin is one of America’s fastest up-and-coming social thinkers. He presents a grim picture of America’s future in his book, Ages of Discord. Specifically, he blames “elite overproduction” for many of America’s challenges and argues that there’s a surplus of smart young Americans fighting for admission to elite colleges and graduates fighting for the same job slots. All that competition, he says, causes society to fracture and is one of the chief causes of political instability. In both cases, the number of people fighting for admission is rising much faster than the number of available slots. That’s partially why schooling and urban housing prices are rising so fast. For an explainer, I recommend this Atlantic article or this explainer from Bloomberg’s Noah Smith.
The Enlightenment: I’ve been studying the Enlightenment. The Wikipedia page is superb and introduced me to people like Cesare Beccaria, who condemned torture and the death penalty to become one of the founding thinkers in the field of criminology. Inspired in part by the article, I read The New Atlantis by Francis Bacon. For a different perspective on the Enlightenment, I recommend Johnathan Bi’s masterful summary of Dialectic of the Enlightenment, which is one of the most important works of philosophy to come out of the Frankfurt School.
Arthur Chandler: There are few things I enjoy more than finding an ugly website with excellent information. It makes the information feel like a secret. Arthur Chandler is a professor at San Francisco State University. Though I recommend playing around on his website, you should start with this article on Oswald Spengler’s morphology or this one about Plato’s Cave. You’ll also find ideas about style, mathematics, dance, photography, and technology.
Münchhausen Trilemma: This idea comes from the world of epistemology. It shows the impossibility of proving any truth, even in the fields of logic and mathematics. Whenever somebody asks for further proof on an argument, there are only three places the speaker can fall back on: (1) the circular argument, in which the proof of some proposition is supported only by that proposition, (2) the regressive argument, where each argument requires further proof, and (3) the dogmatic argument, which rests on accepted principles which are merely asserted rather than defended. Those definitions are from Wikipedia, which provides an excellent introduction.
Peter Thiel and Garry Kasparov: I’ve written extensively about Peter Thiel, and this is one of his most insightful videos. In it, he speaks with chess champion Garry Kasparov about technology, chess, human rights, and the future of the global economy. I wish there were more videos like this of two smart people hanging out and having a casual conversation, beyond the standard interview format. For a preview of the full video, I recommend this six-minute clip.
Century of the Self: A 2013 documentary about how people in power have used Sigmund Freud’s theories to control and manipulate crowds. It discusses the relationship between Freud and Edward Bernays, who was Freud’s nephew and the founder of the public relations industry. If you’re interested in advertising, narrative control, and crowd psychology, you will love this documentary. Oh, and here’s the full transcript.
Zena Hitz: Hitz is a tutor at St. John’s College, which is famous for its Great Books program, and the author of one of my favorite recently published books called Lost in Thought: The Hidden Pleasures of an Intellectual Life. Instead of diving straight into the book, I recommend her interview with Russ Roberts or her essay called Freedom and the Intellectual Life. If you really want to fall down the rabbit hole, she collected all her work here.
The Intellectual Life of the British Working Class: Hitz turned me onto this 550-page book. When we think of the classics, we usually think of academics and aristocrats. But this book shows how erudite the British working classes have historically been with stories about their passion for classic literature and philosophy. The book goes into more depth than I’d like, so I recommend either this review or this one.
Naval Ravikant Interviews Nassim Taleb: I’ve learned more from Nassim Taleb than just about anybody. His concepts are simple and timeless. Taleb draws from finance, philosophy, and statistics and wraps them together into his own, unique worldview. This interview is one of the best summaries I’ve seen of Taleb’s ideas. If you prefer to read an essay, I recommend this article and this article. Both excellent.
Capitalism and Schizophrenia: This is the best rabbit hole I’ve been down in a while. In the essay, Jonah Peretti, the founder of BuzzFeed laid out the theory behind his company years before he started it. His essay builds upon the work of Fredric Jameson, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari to present a new perspective on the relationship between identity and capitalism. The best explanation of Peretti’s essay comes from a YouTube channel called Cuck Philosophy. I also recommend this background article from Vox.
Reinventing Explanation: We forget how tools shape our thought. This essay explores how new media transforms thought and improves our understanding of the world. Through media, we can think the unthinkable. Consider a subway map. It’s a brilliant invention precisely because it distorts reality, but by distorting reality, maps that aren’t drawn to scale influence property values, business decisions, and transportation flows. Here’s my interview with Michael Nielsen, the author.
Business & Tech
Things to Hang on Your Mental Mug Tree: When I study business, I look for authors who are also practitioners because their theories are filtered through the lens of experience. Rory Sutherland tops the list. I interviewed him last year and summarized his ideas in an article too. I discovered his work in this top-notch interview, which is an excellent introduction to his ideas.
Amazon Logistics: It’s official. I’m obsessed with video essays on YouTube, and it’s not going to stop. This video from Wendover Productions is a tour through Amazon’s mind-bogglingly complex logistics system. My favorite part was seeing how the incentives of Amazon, as compared to UPS and FedEx, influence their flight routes.
The Story of Uniqlo: The CEO of Uniqlo shares his principles for the soul of his company. Maybe I like the article because Uniqlo is one of my favorite brands, but it doubles as a window into the kind of Japanese craftsmanship I learned about in my podcast episode with Patrick McKenzie. For years, Uniqlo was seen as an undesirable brand. But that changed with the 1998 launch of a flagship store in Tokyo’s Harajuku neighborhood, and today Uniqlo is a global brand with ~$16 billion in yearly sales.
Vitalik Buterin: Vitalik is the founder of Ethereum and in my opinion, one of the smartest people alive today. In this Annual Review, he talks about the changing role of economics in a digital world. The traditional models of economics don’t apply in the virtual world, where copying is cheap, few things are “consumable,” and goods are non-rivalrous. I also recommend his interviews with Tyler Cowen and Eric Weinstein. If his ideas catch your attention, I also recommend the articles on his website.
Jason Garrett speaks about Jason Witten: The first time I watched this video, it moved me to tears. In four minutes, Garrett highlights the beauty of football, teamwork, and leadership.
Build a Team That Ships: Keep the team small. All doers, not talkers. Absolutely no middle managers, People choose what to work on. No tasks longer than one week. One person per project. If they can’t ship, release them. It’s not perfect. But we ship.
Great Founder Theory: Samo Burja is one of the smartest people you’ve never heard of. His ideas are as exceptional as they are unknown. He’s been researching the causes of societal decay and flourishing. Known for his Great Founder Theory, Samo says that as the landscape of founders and institutions changes, so does the landscape of society. If you’re looking for a lighter introduction, I recommend this Medium post or my interview with Samo.
Ads Don’t Work that Way: This article will re-shape the way you think about advertising. It’s the best explanation I’ve seen for why brands spend millions on Super Bowl ads and why companies like Nike and Apple are so powerful. Brand advertising works because it creates common knowledge. It’s also an introduction to an under-rated concept: common knowledge. For a fact to be common knowledge among a group, it’s not enough for everyone to know it. Everyone must also know that everyone else knows it — and know that they know that they know it… and so on.
Marshall McLuhan Interview: Understanding Media by Marshall McLuhan has shaped my thinking more than any other book. Writing in the 1960s, McLuhan was 50 years ahead of his time. He’s the ultimate internet philosopher. According to one writer: “McLuhan’s theories are subtle and powerful. In fact, it is hard for me to imagine anyone being able to navigate the contemporary environment without at least a good grasp of his principles.” This is the best text-based introduction to Marshall McLuhan’s ideas. I also recommend his interviews on YouTube.
Rory Sutherland: Rory Sutherland is a rare intellectual whose ideas are better consumed in video than in print. Combining economics, psychology and technology, Sutherland discusses how we can improve the human experience by changing our environment. With wit and humor, Sutherland will open your eyes to the power of behavioral economics and the quirks of human decision making. If you prefer to read, I recommend this article.
Understanding the Blue Church: An exploration of how shifts in media are changing the kinds of narratives that flow through society. For the entire post World War II era, narratives were controlled by the mass media. Now that’s changing. Inspired by the work of Marshall McLuhan, the author proposes terms to help us navigate the 21st century media landscape. I also recommend Paul Graham’s essay on why the world is fragmenting.
The Age of Abundance: The media business is fracturing and everybody knows it. We’re moving from a world of information scarcity to a world of information abundance. As a result, the media industry is inverting. I also recommend the following articles about the future of marketing, the future of television, the future of live entertainment, and the future of video. Collectively, these articles by Tal Shachar and Matthew Ball are the best articles I’ve seen about the future of media.
Just Keep Buying: Investing is like a snowball rolling down a hill. Just keep buying and watch that ball grow. When you sell out, you’re selling out future wealth. Ride the highs, weather the lows, and hold onto your assets as you acquire more. Just keep buying.
The Freakishly Strong Base: Warren Buffett’s fortune isn’t due to just being a good investor, but being a good investor since he was literally a child. $80.7 billion of Warren Buffett’s $81 billion net worth was accumulated after his 50th birthday. Seventy-eight billion of the $81 billion came after he qualified for Social Security, in his mid-60s. Start investing as young as you can. Encourage young people to do the same. Build a reputation through small, consistent acts. That’s where everything huge begins. You might also enjoy my interview with Morgan Housel, the author.
Welcome to Air Space: From bars, to coffee shops, to startup offices, the internet is transforming the real-world. In this essay, Kyle Chayka asks: “is the contemporary city like the contemporary airport — all the same?” The essay is cynical, yet thought-provoking. Chayka argues that the internet has created a soul-dissipating uniformity and a globalized sameness-as-a-service. By disconnecting from its geography and making everything as average as possible, AirSpace is the antithesis of travel.
How Steve Kerr Leads Stephen Curry: This is leadership at its finest. In this short video, Steve Kerr, the coach of the Golden State Warriors, speaks to Stephen Curry, his star player. With each word, he dishes respect and inspires confidence. If you’re interested in Steve Kerr, he has a fascinating backstory.
The Algorithmic Trap: Algorithms trick us into thinking we’re getting real and authentic experiences, when in fact, we’re getting the opposite. Algorithms are great at giving you something you like, but terrible at giving you something you love. Worse, by promoting familiarity, algorithms punish culture. The more I travel, the less I depend on algorithms. Especially in cities, I find myself shifting adding friction back to my travel experience — shifting away from digital recommendations and back towards human ones.
Understanding Abundance and Emergent Layers: These four-part series are devoted to a single question: What happens when friction goes away? As a general rule, technology makes scarce things abundant. But a new scarcity always emerges. By focusing on industry structures and competitive behavior at large, this series outlines the shift from scarcity to abundance to scarcity.
You and Your Research: This is a long speech by Richard Hamming, a Bell Labs computer pioneer. He says that knowledge and productivity are like compound interest. The more you know, the more you learn; the more you learn, the more you can do; the more you can do, the more the opportunity — it is very much like compound interest.
How I Stay Productive: Nat Eliason is a good friend and one of the most productive people I know. In this article, he lays out his system for productivity with detail and diligence. I guarantee you’ll find something in here to implement.
Growth Without Goals: Most productivity advice focuses on the importance of goals. Goals, though, can be constraining. This article offers an alternative. In a world where maximizing serendipity is increasingly important, rigid goals can blind us to unexpected opportunities. Rather than focusing on goals, we can build a set of daily practices and strive for continual, habitual practices instead of achievement-based success.
Apple Advertisement: Apple published a new 1-minute advertisement geared towards future employees, and it’s exceptional. Simple, elegant, colorful. Classic Apple. My suggestion is to watch it twice, once with sound and once without it.
PliimPRO: This app lets you safely share your screen. With a single click, you can hide desktop icons, pause notifications, and clean your computer. Then, after you’re done presenting, you can unclick the button and return to your computer as normal.
Tech Subpoenaed PDFs: Apple, Amazon, Facebook, and Google testified in front of Congress and were forced to share some fascinating presentations, emails, and chat logs. They have been deleted on official channels, but somebody graciously saved the PDFs before they were taken down. They’re a rare but fascinating look into how these firms think about competition and acquisitions.
WhisperSync: The entire book industry is limited by Amazon’s monopoly over book sales and electronic reading devices, but WhisperSync is a rare bright spot. For certain books, you can read and listen to a book at the same time if you purchase both the Kindle version and the audiobook. Doing so is the best way to highlight and take notes of audiobooks too.
The Deployment Age: Jerry Neumann wrote an excellent introduction to Carlota Perez’ framework of The Deployment Age, from her book Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital. The book comes highly recommended by people like Alex Danco, Fred Wilson, and Marc Andreessen. Based on the theory, we’re moving into an age of “production capital,” which Neumann explains well.
Entrepreneurship Hacks: I found two great resources while hosting my Annual Review: Bench Bookkeeping and You Need A Budget. The book-keeping service is geared towards small businesses and sole proprietors. The second is for anybody. YNAB has a book, a podcast, and a highly recommended software product. Oh, and here are my friend Tiago’s notes from the book.
Sequoia’s YouTube Thesis: Sequoia Capital is widely regarded as the best venture capital firm in Silicon Valley. They were early investors in Apple, Google, Oracle, PayPal, Stripe, YouTube, Instagram, Yahoo! and WhatsApp. This memo from 2005 shows how they think about an investment. If you’re still curious and want to learn about the firm, I recommend this podcast about Sequioa’s history.
Power to the People: Rich Barton is a rare breed. He’s built three billion-dollar consumer technology companies — Expedia, Zillow, and Glassdoor. This post tells the story of Barton’s strategy for building all three companies, which look different at first glance but are the same under the hood. If you’re interested in Internet business models, this essay is for you.
A History of Stripe: My friend Conor Witt (my co-writer for Naked Brands: The Future of Finance) joined CB Insights, and kicked things off with a mega deep dive into Stripe’s relationship to the global payments system and their plans for the future.
Rethinking Economics: I’m torn about the value of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a metric. On one hand, it’s highly correlated with happiness indices, and people like Tyler Cowen have gracefully argued that we should pursue a strategy of maximizing sustainable GDP, with a low discount rate on the future. With that said, the headstrong pursuit of GDP has perverse side effects for physical and emotional health. In the past 100 years, in America, we’ve seen the decline of community, the death of the nuclear family, and a country that is increasingly obese and diabetic.
Great Assistant: I hired my first personal assistant using this company. It’s pricey, but worth it in my opinion. For $4,000, they help you with all the logistics of hiring and training an assistant. If you choose to work with Great Assistant, tell them I sent you. On another note, If you ever need to delegate a project, I recommend their 360 Delegation process, which I summarized here.
Crisis in Higher Education: An obscure book about the future of higher education, focused on how small liberal arts schools can save themselves. The short answer: increase enrollment. It’s written by Jeff Docking, the President of Adrian College. I had breakfast with him and he’s exceptionally sharp. In 2005, the school had 840 enrolled students and had a tuition income of $8.54 million. By fall of 2011, enrollment had soared to 1,688, and tuition income had increased to $20.45 million.
Basecamp’s Legal Policies: An open-source GitHub repository with Basecamp’s policies, legal contracts, and terms of service. If you run an online business, starting here instead of with a lawyer could save you thousands of dollars. They are free to use under the Creative Commons Attribution license, so you can copy them and put them to work.
The Ladders of Wealth Creation: This essay from Nathan Barry lays out the roadmap for transitioning from an employee to running your own business, similar to the one I walked before starting my business.
The Startup School Library: If you’re interested in building startups, this page is for you. It’s a collection of the best things Y-Combinator has learned about growing companies, from recruiting, to marketing, to fundraising.
Manias and Mimesis: An outstanding paper that applies Rene Girard’s Mimetic Theory to Financial Bubbles. It looks at a series of case studies, from the 1840s railway mania to the ICO boom and collapse, and even to present-day mimesis-driven market distortions. If you want a shorter analysis of a similar theme, I recommend this essay on bubbles as innovation accelerators.
Saudi Aramco: An introduction to one of the world’s wealthiest oil companies, which earned $366 billion in revenue in 2018, with a net income of roughly $110 billion. Most people don’t know this, but it was a wholly US-owned company until 1974 when Saudi Arabia got a 25% stake in the company (today, The Kingdom owns the entire company). This line says it all: “Saudi Aramco is—more even than Apple or Alphabet or Facebook Inc. or all the traditional champions—the greatest machine for the generation of money that the world has ever seen.”
Working in Public: I read this new book about the economics of open-source software and online creators, in part because I interviewed the author, Nadia Eghbal. She worked at GitHub for roughly five years, where she interviewed hundreds of open-source developers. For a lighter introduction to her writing, I recommend Being Basic as a Virtueand The Tyranny of Ideas.
CleanShot: This app solves a simple, but important problem: taking screenshots on a Mac. If that’s something you do a lot, check out CleanShot. It solves a simple problem very, very well.
CommandE: A cloud search tool for your computer so you can open any document, from Google Docs, to Dropbox, to Evernote, to Slack, to Asana, with a single search.
Bar Talk and Innovation: This paper measures the importance of informal social interaction for innovation. It does so by measuring the decline in innovation when wet counties turned dry during the Prohibition and banned alcohol consumption. It turns out, the negative effects of banning alcohol on innovation lasted only three years, after which groups found new ways to socialize and generate new ideas.
An Introduction to Thomas Sowell: An excellent introduction of Sowell’s work by Coleman Hughes. If you don’t know Sowell, he’s a Senior Fellow at Stanford University’s Hoover Institution. This essay tells the story of his life, from growing up without electricity or hot water in North Carolina, to moving to Harlem in 1939, to receiving his Ph.D. in economics at the University of Chicago.
Loom: This is one of my favorite software tools. I use it for screen and video recordings whenever I need to explain something to a coworker. Suppose I have feedback for my assistant. Instead of writing up my thoughts, I record a video to show my thinking, which saves time and improves our communication because I can point to specific things on my screen.
Palantir: One of the most interesting companies in America. Palantir specializes in giant data analysis projects, mostly for governments and multinational companies. For balanced introductions to the company, I recommend this explainer from Kevin Simler about the product and this one from Byrne Hobart about the business model.
Starbucks’ Monetary Superpower: I use the Starbucks app all the time because it’s one of the best payment apps in the world. This article explains how investing in it has turned the company into a quasi-bank. They have ~$1.6 billion in stored value card liabilities outstanding (6% of the company’s liabilities), which come from physical gift cards and the total digital value of balances in the Starbucks mobile app. All that money doubles as free debt that customers loan to the company.
What is Snapchat?: An old video from Snap CEO Evan Spiegel, where he explains how images are changing conversation. “Snapchat has to do with how the photographs have changed. Today, pictures are being used for talking. That’s why people are taking and sending so many pictures on Snapchat every day.”
Hiring for the British Parliament: Here’s a job description from Dominic Cummings, the brilliant architect behind Britain’s Vote Leave campaign. He’s bringing a fresh approach to politics by changing how political decisions are made and welcoming the dissent required to make radical changes to government. Cummings isn’t looking for the kinds of well-spoken and well-networked people you usually find in government. No. He’s looking for weirdos, scientists, and mathematicians. My friend called this post “the most promising thing I’ve seen out of Western government in a decade.” And he might be right. If you’re looking for an introduction to Dominic Cummings, I recommend this 30-minute talk.
Burger King’s Advertising Genius: Marketing at its finest. I won’t give away the 90-second video, but Burger King used a clever marketing trick to attract millions of dollars in free attention and associate the brand with the world’s best soccer players.
The Death of Sears: A story about the fall of Sears, formerly one of America’s top retail brands. The company decided to implement an internal market where departments, stores, trucks, and suppliers competed against each other for cash and attention. But the market-based strategy was a total failure. My favorite anecdote was how Sears’ famous appliance brand, Kenmore, was divided between the appliance division and the branding one. Since non-Sears branded appliances were more profitable to the appliances division, they began to offer better placement to Kenmore’s rivals, which undermined overall profitability. Yikes. Thanks to the excellent Sid Jha for the recommendation.
What is Amazon?:This is everything an essay should be and more. The author, Zack Kanter, is the founder of Stedi and understands how Amazon works better than anybody I’ve ever met. This essay is a long-form explanation of his analysis. My favorite part is his thesis that Amazon is a perpetual motion machine that innovates by discovering what works and amplifying the highest leverage experiments — evolution in real life.
Alex Karp Interview: A two-part conversation with the CEO of Palantir, who is a fascinating guy. He runs a controversial company, and he addresses many of the critiques in this interview with admirable levels of intellectual rigor. Just as interesting, he has a PhD in what amounts to progressive philosophy from the Frankfurt School in Germany. For more about Karp’s background, here’s an excellent long-form essay about his academic career.
Long Haul by Simple Flying: I’m an aviation geek, so I can’t believe I just found this YouTube channel, which eloquently describes trends in commercial aviation. In particular, I enjoyed this history of the Boeing 737 (which I wrote about here) and this one about the rise & fall of the Airbus A340.
Frequent Flyer Programs: Speaking of airplanes, here’s a wild article from Byrne Hobart. Basically, airlines look like they make money from flights, but they actually make money from loyalty programs. Without its loyalty program, Delta would be worth -$7 billion. With it, it’s a $19 billion company. This quote stuck out: “The mechanics of a loyalty program are simple: Flyers earn rewards, generally by flying or using branded credit cards. They redeem those rewards for flights.” You can read the full article here.
Nick Yoder’s Prediction Algorithm: There’s a narrative out there that the polling data for the US election 2020 was terribly wrong. Here’s a data point against it: my friend used it to place hundreds of bets on the presidential election and walked out on top by a wide margin. If you’d like to learn about his methods, you’ll enjoy this multi-part series, which will also teach you about statistical modeling, trading, and portfolio management.
20th Century Technology Theorists: The gift that keeps on giving. Marshall McLuhan’s Understanding Media is probably the most influential book I’ve read to date. Looking through the footnotes has led me to other philosophers of technologies Lewis Mumford, who wrote Technics and Civilization and Water Ong’s Orality and Literacy (here’s my book review). Their work gives you a framework to evaluate all kinds of new technologies, and reveals how the Internet is changing society.
Creativity & Learning
Lessons from Mr. Beast: With 52 million YouTube subscribers, Mr. Beast has become a cultural force. This 30-minute conversation is an excellent introduction to his storytelling capabilities, and in particular, how he creates tension in his videos. The lessons they present are applicable to every creative medium too.
Rolf Degen: The link is a collection of the most popular tweets from one of the best researchers I know. Scroll the feed and you’ll find academic studies about the psychology of trauma, gender relationships, and the non-existent relationship between intelligence and susceptibility to foolish beliefs. By the way, advanced searches are one of the best ways to use Twitter. Picking an account and ranking their tweets by likes will help you find hidden gems.
How a Chess Master Concentrates: On the “Practice Analytically, Perform Intuitively” front, I enjoyed this article from a chess master with a Life Title from the World Chess Federation. This quote is one of the most beautiful things I’ve ever read about mastery: “My search to do the right thing feels fundamentally aesthetic in nature… Good moves have the qualities of truth and beauty. They are discoveries of how things are, and should be.” That’s right. Beauty and excellence become synonymous at the highest levels of performance.
Richard Wagner: I’ve always been familiar with Richard Wagner’s music, but only recently did I begin to understand its tense history. At once, Wagner’s work set the stage for the kinds of dramatic movie scores you see in movies like Interstellar. His music wasn’t just sound. It was theater. But at the same time, his work has always been associated with antisemitism, in part because he was Hitler’s favorite composer. But that’s what makes him such a fascinating person to study. As the music critic Alex Ross said: “With Wagner, you never leave reality, and everything sublime and magnificent and moving in Wagner is inseparable from this corruption, this darkness, this evil. And I think that makes him a very human, unfortunately, exemplary human phenomenon, where the greatness and the darkness are all mixed together because that’s who we are as a species. And Wagner really exemplifies our species, in some ways, in terms of this mixing together of creative and destructive energies all at once, and you can never separate them — if that’s not too drastic.” Damn, that’s good. To learn about Wagner, I recommend Alex Ross’ interview with Tyler Cowen and this one on Open Source.
Why I Meditate: Meditation pushes perception into the dark, pre-linguistic woods of consciousness. The stream of consciousness is not a ceaseless flow of words. Meditation is discipline in non-verbal perception. Where words fail, meditation carries the torch.
Artist and the Machine: A history of the interplay between human tools and human thought. Beginning with 19th century realism, Michael Nielsen explores the history of art and perception. Nielsen demonstrates how, as we create new tools and probe deeper into nature, we discover new aesthetics and new forms of beauty.
Theories of the World: I have a new thesis. Many ultra-successful people have one big idea, and found success by doubling-down on it. There’s more complexity here, which you can read about in my essay One Big Idea. But if you’re looking for some examples, I recommend this series of lectures by George Soros (Reflexivity) or my essay on Peter Thiel (Mimetic Theory).
Podcast with Robert Cottrell:The Browseris the best link curation service I’ve found. I spoke to its founder for 90 minutes about what it takes to acquire good taste, how different people read, and the future of language translation. You can listen to the podcast on iTunes, Spotify, or your go-to podcast app.
Shock of the New:I watch lots of YouTube videos, but usually they’re shorter than this series. For the past few weeks, I’ve been watching this excellent 8-part documentary on art history, hosted by Robert Hughes. The series traces the 100-year history of modern art, from the Impressionists in 1880 to the postmodernists in 1980. And if you like the documentary, I recommend the book with the same title.
The Lost Tools of Learning: A talk from poet Dorothy Sayers, given at Oxford University in 1947. In it, she argues that education began to lose its way in the Middle Ages. By bringing back the three lost tools of learning — grammar, logic, and rhetoric — we can foster self-directed learners instead of sleepwalking automatons.
Amazon’s Great Courses: You’ll find lectures from just about every topic under the sun. I purchased two lecture series: one about the history of Christian theology another on about the Book of Genesis. In college, I remember listening to this series on economic history, which outlined the theories of people like Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and Karl Marx.
Minerva: This is one of the best books I’ve ever read on education. My friend Andy Matuschak, the former Director of Research at Kahn Academy, recommended it to me. Most books about education are rooted in opinion. But this one is grounded in empirical research. It tells the story of a new university called Minerva, a San Francisco based school that re-thought education from the ground-up. Their pedagogy is based on a 1972 paper called Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. If you’re interested in education, this book is for you.
Where Greatness Comes From: I keep coming back to this short movie clip from Whiplash. In it, a drummer breaks up with his girlfriend because he wants to focus on his craft. I won’t tell you any more because I don’t want to spoil it. Apparently, Whiplash was one of Kobe Bryant’s favorite movies, and after you watch this short clip, you’ll understand why. Pair it with this interview with Kobe Bryant and a short article called Whiplash and Extreme Greatness.
Jack Butcher: If you aren’t familiar with Visualize Value, now is the time to change that. Jack is fast becoming one of my favorite online creators. He has the two things every online illustrator needs: stellar taste and a distinct style. He illustrates famous quotes to share timeless wisdom in ways that ring in your mind long after you read them.
Childhood: I’ve been studying the sociology of childhood. In particular, I recommend two books: The Disappearance of Childhood by Neil Postman and Deschooling Societyby Ivan Illich. Both of them wrote in the 70s, and offer perspectives that you won’t find in today’s mainstream commentary. Even if you aren’t interested in childhood, I recommend both authors’ backlog of books about the social effects of technology and industrialization.
Note-Taking: I went deep down the note-taking rabbit hole. I now have a firm grasp on Notion and Roam, each of which has radically different philosophies for how information should be stored, organized, and synthesized. If you want to learn Roam, I recommend Nat Eliason’s introductory course. Or, if you want to explore the philosophy of note-taking, I recommend Andy Matuschak’s notes on the subject (follow his hyperlinks).
David Cole’s Cannon: More writers should do this. Heck, I should too. A former designer at Quora shares the works of scholarship underlying his worldview. Topics include purpose, process, product, user experience, and craft. If you like design, this page is for you.
Stephanie Tolan: You know somebody’s writing is going to be good when the articles are old, the design is ugly, and the articles are still popular. This site is Exhibit A. Stephanie writes about childhood education, mostly through the lens of gifted children. To begin, I recommend an article called Is it a Cheetah?
How to Take Smart Notes: This book has become a cult-classic, and this is the best summary I’ve read about it. Taking notes is the fastest way to remove writer’s block and become a more prolific writer, which is why it’s such a focus in Write of Passage.
Yale Courses: I realized I knew almost nothing about Karl Marx. He’s arguably the most important philosopher of the past 200 years, and I hadn’t engaged with his ideas. Concepts like alienation, exploitation, and the labor theory of value. Yale lectures are the first place I look whenever I want to study a new subject. I start with lectures and only start reading the books once I have foundational knowledge. As for Marx, I listened to the lectures from SOCY 151: Foundations of Modern Social Theory. Here is the YouTube video. No matter what subject you’re interested in, Yale lectures are a good place to begin.
JUMP: This is about the implications of a world where everybody can broadcast their ideas, and once shared, an idea can spread to the entire world in a matter of days. File this in the “I wish I wrote this essay” category, which is the highest praise I can give.
Every Frame a Painting: An exceptional YouTube channel with video essays that talk about how movies are made and how directors make films. I recommend this video about how to compose visual movement or this one on Jackie Chan’s action scenes.
Leisure: The Basis of Culture: My friend recommended Andrew Taggert’s work to me, and after hearing about his philosophy of “Total Work,” I went back to the source of it all: a 1948 manifesto about the problems with our contemporary work culture. In only 145 pages, it argues that we should learn from the Greeks, retreat from our culture of workaholism, and live a life of spiritual and intellectual nourishment. Here’s the book summary from Brain Pickings.
Contemporary Art: I’ve fast become a huge fan of John David Ebert. He is able to summarize shifts in art, media, and culture as well as anybody I know. I’ve been floating between his summaries of Spengler’s Decline of the Westand the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. I found this 59-part series on contemporary art, based on his book Art After Metaphysics.
The Danger of Silence: I first found this 4-minute slam poetry video from Clint Smith when I was in college. I’m blown away by it every time I come back to it. In the video, Smith reminds us to read critically, write consciously, speak clearly, and tell your truth. To me, this is the pinnacle of public speaking.
Mary Oliver Interview with Krista Tippett: Mary Oliver passed away, but her memory lives on through this rare interview with Krista Tippett. I recommend it as a starting point for the entire On Being podcast. She explores the spiritual life of writers, entrepreneurs, and religious figures with an emotional tenderness you won’t find on any other show. When you listen to one of Krista’s podcasts, you know you’re going to investigate the choir of the soul and the mystery of the universe. The environment she creates is as contemplative as a meditation retreat and as homey as the stuffed animal you used to hug as a kid.
TV Tropes: A Monday Musings reader named Erik sent me this website and if you’re interested in Hollywood, it’s for you. It’s a collection of all kinds of storytelling techniques for things like plot-lines, character-building, and other tools creators use to express their ideas. It’s a bit disorganized because it’s written in a Wiki-style, but that’s part of what makes it so good.
Good Old Neon: Of all the David Foster Wallace short stories, this is my favorite one. It’s a difficult window into the mind of a depressed person, narrated by a ghost from beyond the grave. Given that the author took his life a couple years after it was published, I suspect that it was a way to grapple with the warfare inside his own mind. Here’s the audiobook, and here’s a free 41-page PDF. The heaviness of it reminds me of The Death of Ivan Ilyich by Leo Tolstoy, which I equally recommend.
Liberal Arts: The West’s faith in the liberal arts is declining and I’m on a mission to find out why. To do so, I tore through Fareed Zakaria’s short book, In Defense of a Liberal Education, which argues for the benefits of studying ideas from different disciplines and using college to expose students to many ways of thinking. In my study, I was happy to find a series of annual lectures at the University of Chicago called The Aims of Education. Here’s the archive of speakers. You can find most of the speeches with a Google search. In particular, I enjoyed Robert Maynard Hutchins’ speech from 1943.
Liberal Arts: I enjoyed Fareed Zakaria’s In Defense of a Liberal Education. I also read Beyond the Universityby Michael Roth, which was a historical deep dive into how the liberal arts became what they are today. I recommend them both. If you’re looking for a personal narrative, read Zakaria’s book, and if you’re looking for history, read Roth’s.
Porter Robinson Interview: Woah, this is the best thing I’ve read about the creative process in a long, long time. I don’t know if it’s really good or if I’m just such a big Porter Robinson fan that anything he says will entertain me. Probably a little bit of both. If you do creative work, you will resonate with what he’s saying.
How Music Works: While we’re on the topic of music, I recommend How Music Worksby David Byrne. It’s written for a mass audience of people who like music enough to attend live concerts but haven’t studied it formally. Just like me. If you want to read a review of the book first, consider this one from the New York Times.
An Introduction to Christopher Alexander: I’ve now read two of Alexander’s books: A Timeless Way of Buildingand Notes on the Synthesis of Form. He’s excellent but notoriously hard to summarize (one of the marks of a great writer), but Ryan Singer tries to distill the key principles from his work in this 90-minute video.
Swedish House Mafia: I love watching creativity in action. This video is a behind-the-scenes of the making of One. Notice how the DJs are throwing out ideas, keeping what works, and throwing away the rest — all while having fun. Here’s the extended video with Swedish House Mafia playing the song at Ultra. I like it because it shows how an idea can go from an experiment in a studio to the night of a lifetime for 80,000 people.
K-Pop: These are the kinds of articles that make the Internet great. This deep-dive on K-Pop focused on why it’s so popular, how it represents an alternative to Western pop music, why the fandom is so intense, the arduous process of becoming a K-Pop star, and why it’s such a centralized and hierarchical industry.
Beautiful Performances: Living with five friends has introduced me to all kinds of videos I wouldn’t have found otherwise. Two things stand out: Alicia Keys’ performance at the Grammy’s where she honors songs she wishes she’d written and this Michael Jackson performance of Billie Jean where the audience is moved to tears by his performance.
Bruno Cucinelli: This is an interview for the ages. The New Yorker called Bruno Cucinelli the “king of cashmere.” He’s the founder of an eponymously named Italian fashion brand, which makes cashmere sweaters and earns more than $450 million per year in revenue. The interview is a trip through his philosophy of life and business, based on the pillars of dignity, beauty, and soul.
David Whyte: Whyte is an English poet, and I can’t stop listening to his interviews. He made me see how humiliation is a terrible feeling but a beautiful word. It comes from the Latin word humus, which means soil. So being humiliated is like returning to the ground of your being. Only by shedding those illusions of selfhood do you confront your own fragility. I recommend his interviews with Sam Harris and Krista Tippett. As you listen, your soul will fill up with the warmth of a fireplace on a cold winter night.
James Turrell: An American artist known for his work with light and space. Like Yayoi Kusama, his work is made for our hyper-visual age, where art is photographed and shared on small screens. Almost all of Turell’s work is magnificent, but he’s at his best when he’s playing with rectangles. For an introduction to his art, I recommend this short article, his New York Times profile, or this interview from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
Letters to a Young Poet: A collection of letters from Rainer Maria Rilke, published in 1929. They double as a manual about living as an artist and doing creative work. Two creative virtues stand out: solitude and patience. The book is short enough to read in one sitting, but the writing is so beautiful that you’ll want to stop, put your book down, and reflect on the wisdom within it. Though it’s about poetry, anybody who does creative work will enjoy it.
99% Invisible: A show about all the thought that goes into the things we don’t think about, particularly in architecture and design. To date, this show is responsible for more of my Internet rabbit holes than just about any source I can think of. I recommend this two-part series about the Bijlmeer or this one about the carpet at the Portland airport. Every podcast comes with a full transcript, so you can choose how you want to enjoy the ideas.
Epic School in Oklahoma: There’s an online charter school in Oklahoma called Epic, which has 38,000 students and where teachers can earn more than $100,000 per year. The school was made possible by a law that gave online-only charter schools a separate regulatory structure from physical schools and didn’t have an enrollment cap. Epic is hated by most people in the traditional education industry. They’ve been the subject of multiple lawsuits, mostly around alleged fraud, but none of them have been resolved.
Gareth Hinds: This author re-creates famous books with beautiful hand-drawn images. I particularly recommend them for people with kids. It might be fun to read the original book yourself, but share the picture-books with your kids so you can talk about the famous stories together. I immediately purchased his graphic novels about The Odyssey and Gifts from the Gods, which is all about the wisdom of Greek mythology. If you purchase the books, get a paper version instead of a digital one.
How Malcolm X Learned to Read: Here’s an inspiring story if there ever was one. Malcolm X learned to read by reading the dictionary and learning each word, one-by-one. Crazy, right? He was in prison at the time, and as his vocabulary broadened, he binge-read books in the isolation of his prison cell. As he recounted: “When I had progressed to really serious reading, every night at about ten P.M. I would be outraged with the “lights out.” It always seemed to catch me right in the middle of something engrossing. Fortunately, right outside my door was a corridor light that cast a glow into my room. The glow was enough to read by, once my eyes adjusted to it. So when “lights out” came, I would sit on the floor where I could continue reading in that glow. Here’s the full story.
History, Science, & Math
What the Hell Happened in 1971?: Something eerie happened in the early 1970s, and this website has the data to back it up. For example, wage growth stagnated for the bottom 90% of workers, leading to rising inequality. City growth froze too. In 1970, Los Angeles was zoned for 10 million people. By 2010, the city was zoned for only 4.3 million people, and the rate of new housing developments has fallen since the 1970s. Adjusted for population growth, we have about 350% fewer housing starts than we did in 1971.
Shock of the New: A book and a documentary from the famous art critic, Robert Hughes. It’s by far the best thing I’ve seen about the history of modern art, from the 1870s to the 1970s. It focuses on a variety of themes, from the failure of modern architecture, to the rise of pop culture, to the legacy of the world wars, to the transition from impressionism to cubism (which is my favorite part of art history). It’s a dazzling piece of scholarship and I can’t recommend it enough.
The Tyranny of Numbers: We live in a society where the numbers have the final say. When revenue goes up, the business is healthy. When GDP goes up, so does the economy. But focusing too much on numbers can lead to adverse side effects. Not everything that counts can be counted. By obsessing over numerical improvements, we often ignore the aspects of life that can’t be measured and lose sight of what ultimately matters.
How All This Happened — A short economic history of America since World War II. Things were very uncertain, then they were very good, then pretty bad, then really good, then really bad, and now here we are. Morgan Housel outlines a narrative that links all the events together.
Andrew Batson: If you want to learn more about China, I recommend Andrew Batson’s blog. He writes for Gavekal as their Director of Chinese Research. Start with this post on the battle for ideas in China.
Peace of Westphalia: The Thirty Years’ War was one of the most deadly periods in European history, and led to the deaths of roughly 8 million people. The violence was settled with a series of peace treaties in 1648. Scholars have identified the treaties as the beginning of the modern international system, and in particular, the concept of sovereign states.
Bowling Alone: Robert Putnam’s book Bowling Aloneis one of the most influential pieces of American sociology ever written. In it, he talks about the decline of social life in America, including the fall in church membership, attendance at public meetings, and the number of Americans who participate in associations. This is an excellent summary of the book.
Singapore: A series of four outstanding Reddit posts, which summarized Lee Kuan Yew’s book, From Third World to First. The posts will take you a few hours to read, but you’ll leave with a deep understanding of how the country operates. If these ideas interest you, you’ll also enjoy my essay on the history of Singapore.
How to Remove CO2 From the Sky: These are exactly the kinds of articles we need more of. Anything that touches climate change is politicized, so when I find an article from a trusted source, I have to share it. The author (friend of a friend, so I trust him) spoke with more than one hundred experts to write a beginner’s guide to Negative Emissions Technologies.
Space in High Definition: An ultra-high quality photo of the stars and the sky. Open it on a computer browser, zoom in as much as you can, and open your heart to the vastness of the universe.
Mushrooms and the Birth of Christianity: Okay, this one is a mind-bender. It falls under the probably-not-true-but-super-interesting category. John M. Allegro was an archaeologist and who studied the Dead Sea Scrolls. His book, The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross was particularly controversial because it argues that Christianity began as a shamanistic cult. Then, when the Gospels were written down, the Evangelists confused the meaning of the scrolls, which means the entire Christian tradition is based on a misunderstanding of them. One scholar called it “possibly the single most ludicrous book on Jesus scholarship by a qualified academic,” and Allegro was banished from the academy after it was published. Honestly, I have no idea if his claims have any legitimacy. I don’t know how to evaluate them, but this article does a thorough job arguing that we should look into Allegro’s theories again.
Open: This is an excellent biography of Andrei Agassi, the former #1 tennis player in the world. It’s an emotional journey through the sacrifices required to become a top-tier athlete. For example, even when he was the world’s top tennis player, Agassi didn’t enjoy tennis. And as it turns out, the book’s ghostwriter named J.R. Moehringer also penned Shoe Dog, the biography of Phil Knight, which tells the story of Nike.
How Airplanes Fly: The physics of flight has interested me ever since I was a kid. I took flying lessons during high school, in part because of a program for Bay Area teenagers called Young Eagles, which allowed kids like myself to fly airplanes for free. Yes, it was as cool as it sounds. To this day, I still turn my head whenever a plane flies above me. This article explains the science of aerodynamics as well as anything I’ve ever seen.
Will Durant: What a criminally under-rated author. Along with his wife Ariel, he wrote an 11-volume, 13,974-page tome on the history of human civilization. From what I hear, it’s as thorough as anything that exists. But what if you don’t have time to read thousands of pages? Well, I have good news for you. Towards the end of his life, Durant summarized his learnings in three short books: Lessons of Historyis for your mind, The Story of Philosophyis for your heart, and Fallen Leavesis for your soul.
3Blue1Brown: Grant Sanderson (one of my podcast guests) makes excellent math-related videos on YouTube. You’ll find videos on topics like linear algebra, neural networks, calculus, the math of Bitcoin, and quantum mechanics. With every video, he turns abstract symbols into concrete visualizations. Then, he adds narrative to a mathematical concept. Start with this video on the virality of Coronavirus or this series about calculus.
Edge: This website is a hidden treasure. On it, you’ll find all kinds of interviews with great writers and articles about forgotten scientific ideas. I don’t know how this website has managed to fly under the radar for so long, but it’s worthy of your attention. Start with this essay on Composers as Gardners, this one on the problems with String Theory, or this interview with Rory Sutherland.
Requiem for the American Dream: A book and a documentary from Noam Chomsky, focused on 10 principles for the concentration of wealth and power. Chomsky tells the story of how society has transformed from the 1970s to now by focusing on ten themes: democracy, ideology, redesigning the economy, shifting the burden, attacking solidarity, running the regulators, engineering elections, keeping the rabble in line, manufacturing consent, and marginalizing the population. If you agree with everything he’s saying, you’re not thinking hard enough. But Chomsky’s bold perspectives will force you to take a stand. And if you want a summary, here’s the Wikipedia page.
A Brief History of the Corporation: If you’ve never heard of Ribbonfarm, it’s time to change that. It’s mostly written by Venkatesh Rao who is absolutely brilliant, even though he’s often more obscure than I’d like. This essay about the corporation is one of the best things he’s ever written. I also recommend essays like The Throughput of Learningand A Big Little Idea Called Legibility.
The Plague in Literature and Life: This essay builds on Rene Girard’s Mimetic Theory and Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishmentnovel to show that the social anarchy after a plague is usually worse than the plague itself.
The Story of Oprah Winfrey: Oprah might be the most successful media personality in American history. This two-hour podcast episode is the best explanation of her story I’ve seen, from the adversity she faced as a teenager to becoming one of the wealthiest women in the world.
Outbreak: This is the best COVID-19 related visualization I’ve seen. It was created by Kevin Simler, one of my all-time favorite writers. It’s a “playable simulation,” meaning that you can change the variables to visualize how they impact the spread of a disease. If you like these visualizations, I also recommend this one from the Washington Post.
Nicky Case: Building upon the theme of playable simulations, I recommend Nicky Case’s entire website. The complex systems simulation is my favorite, but I also recommend this interactive comic on the science of memory, and this one about game theory, which is inspired by a book called The Evolution of Trust, which I summarized here. If nothing else, these visualizations are a window into the future of online writing.
Labor Supply and the Attention Tax: A long-form essay about why labor force participation has declined for men between ages 20-34. The authors propose that the drop in labor participation rate of young men is a result of a combination of factors: (i) a decrease in cost of access to media entertainment leisure, (ii) increases in both the availability and (iii) quality media entertainment leisure, and (iv) a decrease in the marginal signaling utility of (conspicuous) consumption goods for all but the highest earners.
Ole Peters: A fascinating talk by a researcher from the Santa Fe Institute. It’s about ergodicity, which is one of the most insightful ideas I’ve heard in the past few years. Peters builds upon Boltzmann’s 1870 probability theory and cutting edge mathematics to question economic doctrines. His conclusion is surprisingly accessible and impacts how we think about risk, market stability, and economic inequality.
Unlimited Information is Transforming Society: This article is pure fun. It’s basically a short, “Big History” piece. It tells the story of how technologies like electricity, nuclear energy, and heavier than air flight evolved and shaped humanity. It follows the march of progress into today’s world of computers and the Internet.
Building in Singapore: A gorgeous 5-minute video that shows how fast new buildings are rising in Singapore. Right now, the architecture of the future is centered there more than any other city in the world. While I’m certainly not a fan of everything Singapore does, Westerners should spend a lot more time studying them. A little envy for the quality of their infrastructure would be a good thing too.
History of the Idea of Progress: There are two predominant ways to think about time: linearly and cyclically. Today, we tend to think about it linearly, which wasn’t always the case. The linear conception of time has its roots in the Christian tradition where the world starts in the Garden of Eden at the beginning of the Old Testament and moves towards a New Heaven and a New Earth at the end of the New Testament. I wrote extensively about this idea in my essay about Peter Thiel. Most of the ideas were inspired by this outstanding essay by Robert Nisbet. You might also enjoy this slide deck from Arthur Chandler.
The Scholar’s Stage: This is an outstanding collection of essays, all from a single writer named Tanner Greer. The site focuses on history, strategy, and geopolitics. To date, my favorite essays are Tradition is Smarter Than You Are and Taking Cross Cultural Psychology Seriously. But Tanner is particularly a must-read if you’re interested in China. If so, I recommend The Chinese Strategic Tradition and China’s Stalinist Heritage. If you’re looking for a rabbit hole to fall down, this is an excellent place to jump.
How Aristotle Created the Computer: This essay traces the history of logic from Aristotle to modern computing. It builds upon the early days of Euclidean geometry, when mathematics was considered a hopelessly abstract subject with no practical use. Later, it moves into Claude Shannon’s work on information theory, which runs the computer you’re using to read this sentence. Here’s a good summary: “Logic began as a way to understand the laws of thought. It then helped create machines that could reason according to the rules of deductive logic. Today, deductive and inductive logic are being combined to create machines that both reason and learn.”
A History of Private Life: A five-volume set that reveals how people lived in the ancient world. I’ve only read the first one, which covers the era from Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Right now, I’m particularly interested in the history of work and leisure. Author Paul Veyne shows how idleness was considered a virtue in the ancient world. Leisure was considered the essence of a well-lived life, which is the opposite of today’s cities where saying “I’m busy” has become such a status symbol.
Birds and Frogs in Physics: I’ve always liked the Fox vs. Hedgehog distinction between people who know a little bit about many things and people who know a lot about one thing. This essay makes a similar argument that people are either birds or frogs. Birds see things from, well… a bird’s eye view where they have a vast landscape in front of them without a lot of detail. On the other hand, frogs like to get dirty and dive into the nitty-gritty details. But this essay goes beyond that and tells a brief history of physics. Einstein and Feynman were birds, while Fermi and Hubble were frogs.
Richard Feynman: A theoretical physicist known for his work in quantum electrodynamics and a Nobel Prize in 1965. A friend had a three-volume book with all his lectures. Walking by them regularly inspired me to watch his YouTube videos and read the transcripts (freely transcribed on CalTech’s website). Beyond physics, Feynman achieved the impossible: he became a brilliant adult but never lost the playfulness of a child. To appreciate his fun, start with this YouTube video about jiggling atoms, rubber bands, and intellectual puzzles.
Matthew McConaughey: I’m traveling today, so let’s start with an airport bookstore recommendation. As you know, the purpose of Friday Finds is to escape the intellectual spotlight as much as possible. If it’s in the news, I cut it. But this week we have a glitch in the system. Mr. McConaughey’s memoir, Greenlights, is so good that it gets to hang at the top today. Unlike other celebrity books, he actually wrote it. The storytelling is top-notch, and if you’re looking to laugh so hard that tears fall from your eyes, pick up the audiobook.
Fellow Kettles: Now that I’ve been moving apartments, I’m in the market for well-designed home appliances. Most of mine work “fine.” But there’s one that puts a smile on my face every time I use it: the Fellow Stagg EKG Electric Pour-Over Kettle. It lets you control the temperature of your drink, down to the degree. If you make pour-over coffee, it has a host of other features like a stopwatch and a PID controller to help you hold the perfect temperature over time.
Getaway: A startup called Getaway has cabins around the country that offer easy trips away from major cities. They’re 1-2 bedrooms, and they’re all in nature. It’s basically a hyper-specific Airbnb, but geared towards short escapes to the woods. I haven’t tried it yet, but am going to book a cabin for the spring.
Obscure PDFs: This is a Reddit collection of PDFs you won’t find anywhere else. On the page, you’ll find in-depth looks into restaurant business models, the 100-year history of erotic art, the psychology of fascism, how the quantum search algorithm works, and the CIA’s simple sabotage field manual.
Barstool’s Pizza Reviews: You weren’t expecting this link, were you? Every day, Barstool Sports founder Dave Portnoy reviews a different pizza shop. Even if the brand looks casual, Barstool’s Pardon My Take is the biggest sports-related podcast in the world. In this pizza review, Dave is with a few celebrities in Midtown Manhattan. Halfway through, a girl walking next to him recognizes Dave (the Internet celebrity), without acknowledging the traditional Hollywood ones (Jon Hamm, Ed Helms, Jeremy Renner, Jake Johnson, and Hannibal Buress). Videos like this highlight the under-estimated inertia behind Internet culture.
Criterion Collection: My writing coach Ellen Fishbein is a movie fanatic, and says this platform is the best place to find and watch movies. The service is dedicated to promoting exceptional classic and contemporary films. Each film is presented in the way the directors would have wanted them to be seen. I can’t believe I didn’t know about this.
Media Mail: If you’re an American and you ever need to send educational materials, use Media Mail. It’s a government-subsidized service from the United States Postal Service designed for media like books, movies, CDs, articles, and magazines. Best of all, there’s no catch. Using media mail is as simple as shipping a regular package.
Google Books Ngram Viewer: This tool tracks the frequency of any set of word strings found in sources printed between 1950 and 2019. With its online search engine, you can see how words and phrases have risen and fallen in popularity throughout history. At the very least, it’s a blast to play with. And at most, it’s a window into mass psychology over the centuries.
As you can see, these are the kinds of links you won’t find anywhere else on the Internet. If you’d like to receive five new ones in your inbox every week, enter your email below.
Recommended Reading Lists
- Maria Popova
- Bret Victor
- Oliver Sacks
- Patrick Collison’s Website
- Patrick Collison on Twitter
- Morgan Housel
- Tyler Cowen
- Alan Kay
- Alan Turing
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- Jake Seliger
- Joan Didion
- Stewart Brand
- Patrick O’Shaughnessy
- Keith Rabois
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- Visakan Veerasamy
- The Best Textbooks on Every Subject
- The Best Introductory Books on Every Topic
- Media Ecology Reading List
- Five Books